1. Color classification
The color of stage lighting equipment can be divided into two categories: achromatic and color. Achromatic refers to white, light gray, gray to dark gray, to black, and is called the white-black series. Pure white is an ideal object with complete light reflection and its reflectivity is 1; a pure black is an ideal object without reflection and its reflectivity is 0. Therefore, the achromatic white-black series represents the change of light reflectance of objects. We know that the light reflectance is proportional to the brightness, and the indoor white walls and ceiling can get a higher brightness. Color refers to various colors other than the white and black series. Color has three characteristics: hue, lightness, and saturation, called the three elements of color.
Hue refers to the color presented. That is the name of various colors, such as red, green, blue, etc. It is related to the wavelength of light. Brightness (brightness) is how bright the color is. The brightness of different tones is different, even if the same tone is affected by the nature of the surface of the object and the intensity of the light, there will be a difference between light and dark, and shade. If it is also yellow, it can be light yellow, medium yellow, deep yellow, etc.
Saturation (Saturation) indicates the depth (shade) of the color, and can also be said to be the purity and vividness of the color. The higher the saturation, the deeper (dark) the color appears. The various monochromatic lights in the visible light are the most saturated color. The more white light is added to the spectral color, the more unsaturated it becomes. For example, red light is more saturated than pink light because white light is mixed into pink light. Generally speaking, in the same hue, when the brightness changes, the saturation also changes, but the increase or decrease of the brightness decreases the saturation, and the saturation (purity) is the largest only when the brightness is moderate. However, people always feel that bright colors always look brighter.
2. Three primary colors and color matching method
Red, green, and blue are called the three primary colors. These three colors are mixed in different proportions and can produce various colors. There are two basic methods of color mixing: additive color mixing and subtractive color mixing.
The so-called additive color mixing is when different colors of light are mixed, they add their respective parts of the spectrum together to produce a new method of mixing colors. It indicates the color-forming relationship between light and color mixing. The three primary colors of red, green, and blue can be obtained when mixed in equal amounts:
Red light + Greenlight = Yellow light Green light + Blue light = Cyan
Greenlight + Red light = Magenta light Red light + Greenlight + Blue light = White light
If different amounts of three primary colors are mixed, various intermediate colors can be obtained, for example:
More red light + less green light = orange light
More red light + less blue light = pink light
Subtractive color mixing is the mixing of different colors, each of which selectively absorbs the corresponding part of their spectrum from the incident light and produces a synthetic color effect. If any two colored lights add up and produce white light, these two colored lights are called complementary colors (complementary colors). For example, yellow and blue are complementary colors, cyan and red are complementary colors, and magenta and green are complementary colors. Therefore, yellow, cyan, and magenta are called blue reduction, red reduction, and green reduction, respectively, which means that the three complementary colors are made by subtracting a corresponding primary color from white light. Therefore, yellow, cyan, and magenta can be called the three primary colors of the subtractive color method.